Concept of systems and simulation models, descriptive and explanatory models, static and
dynamic models, single and multidimensional models. Modeling process: boundary
identification, components and links, model construction, parameterization, verification,
calibration, sensitivity analysis and validation. Hydrological models, soil erosion models, soil and
crop models. Crop simulation models: mathematical representation of the soil-plant-climate
systems, Decision Support System for Agro technology Transfer (DSSAT). Computer-based
models and their applications.